The cosmetic tattoo or permanent makeup.
On the part of the current cosmesis, the cosmetic tattoo, also called “dermopigmentation”, “micropigmentation” or “permanent makeup”, originated as a branch of the traditional tattoo. The traditional tattoo, achieved by primitive or modern techniques, is also an ancient practice that accompanies or replaces clothing and is characterised by the use of symbolic or virtual. Extended and perfected in the modern world, the practice covers very diverse functions and its uses are very wide, but unlike cosmetic tattoos, the purpose of traditional tattoos is not to restore, correct defects, shape the face or simplify the usual makeup.
The cosmetological appropriation of the tattoo is a relatively recent phenomenon, if we compare it with the use of cosmetic makeup. Around 1900, the practice of tattooing was applied to improve the appearance of those who, due to illness or accidents, had lost eyebrows, had blemished, depigmented, burned skin or wanted to hide scars. These uses of cosmetic tattoo began to be documented around 1920, when the use of the resource to delineate eyelids and eyebrows is also recorded. In the Bettmann Archive and in the Tattoo Archive in Berkeley there is evidence that society ladies on the east coast of the United States had tattooed their lips, cheeks and eyelids since the beginning of the last century.
The cosmetic tattoo as a system
To analyze the phenomenon of cosmetic tattooing, or the permanent delineation of eyebrows, eyelids and lips, we are going to inscribe it within a system open to immediate influences and effects; such as those that have to do with cosmetic makeup, clothing and accessories, which in turn are part of the social and cultural system.
When explaining the cosmetic tattoo we bear in mind that the cosmetic, clothing and sociocultural system imprints its own order and has its own elements, but they are open to the influences of the other systems with which they interact. The cosmetic tattoo system, like any system, has its own elements that fulfill certain functions through the relationships they have with each other. The elements that we have distinguished are the following:
– Techniques and knowledge (TS)
– Instruments (I)
– Products (Pr)
– Practitioners (P)
– Users (U)
– Cosmetic Tattoo Industry (ITC)
The cosmetic tattoo industry (ITC) produces products (Pr) and instruments (I) that are offered to practitioners (P) and / or users (U); for this it uses its knowledge and certain techniques (TS). The practitioners, cosmetai, use the products and instruments according to their knowledge and techniques to apply them to the user. Users are recipients of the techniques and knowledge of the practitioners and their products. Likewise, the user automatically accesses certain knowledge and techniques in addition to certain
Techniques and Knowledge products
By technique, we understand the skill in the use of means and procedures that a practitioner follows by virtue of a certain knowledge that he has acquired about his trade. In the particular case at hand, when we talk about tattoo techniques, we refer to the procedures followed by practitioners / tattooists to macerate or cut the skin or to puncture or puncture it and the procedures by which they introduce indelible pigments under the macerated skin. or punctured. The performance of these procedures is achieved through the use of certain instruments. To macerate or cut the skin, the “gun” or “frasadora” is used, it is the most powerful instrument in terms of the speed with which it manages to cut or macerate the epidermis and in terms of the depth it reaches when it reaches the dermis. To puncture or puncture the epidermis,the “rotary pen” is used, which is slower to cross the epidermis and reaches less depth. Any of these techniques requires the complement of a third one that consists of injecting a small amount of color into the dermis, point by point, to produce the effect of a totally uninterrupted line.
Skin conditions and resistance to pain are determining factors in choosing one technique or another. In any case, both techniques cause trauma to the skin, as it cannot be opened, crushed or punctured without causing discomfort or pain.
The knowledge acquired and accumulated by each practitioner is revealed in their recommendations to use one or another technique, instrument or anesthetic and remedies to relieve pain. Their knowledge will also serve to choose the appropriate color mixtures to achieve the tones and effects desired by the user and for the maximum durability of the pigmentation. But above all, his knowledge translates into the ability to achieve a control and a direct connection between the skin and the needle when giving the injection.
This phase of the process is also related to pain and the ability of each person to bear it (pain threshold), in general, the areas of the eyes and lips are more sensitive to pain. Opening the skin and introducing the colors, ensuring rapid cauterization and minor inflammations, and the durability of the pigmentation have worried practitioners, for this reason, a large part of their techniques and knowledge is devoted to solving the above.
The foregoing becomes important in the field of cosmetic tattooing that tries to cover marks and spots, particularly those produced by certain diseases and burns. Also in reconstructive surgery that uses techniques and special knowledge for reconstruction, for example, nipples and areoles of patients who have undergone massectomies. To solve these more serious problems related to Corrective Cosmetic Camouflage (CPC), the practitioner is forced to use a gun that penetrates the scars and guarantees a smoother and more persistent application of the concealers. The latter is achieved with needles of other numbers than those used in conventional and specially manufactured tattooing.
The basic cosmetic tattoo tools to introduce color into the skin are: the traditional gun or milling machine, which cuts, macerates or crushes the skin; the rotary pen that punctures the skin instead of cutting it, and the needles that serve to place the pigment in the dermis. Other instruments are: gloves, face masks, masks and containers, all of which must be disposable.
The products used for lining the eyelids, eyebrow tattoo and lip tattoo are a series of pigments of mineral origin and others of vegetable origin. Next to them are also the products necessary to anesthetize the areas to be outlined, the products necessary to alleviate the inflammation caused by the procedure and the products necessary to prevent any infection or reaction.
As for the former, some cosmetologists distinguish between pigments used in traditional tattoos, extracted from metals and minerals that are practically indelible, and products based on vegetable pigments that gradually fade and are perishable. The selection between one and the other pigments, of the inks and their shades, is important because they are related to the types of skin, the nuances that are sought to be obtained and the durability that is intended to be achieved.
In the magazine Face, it is indicated about the need to test the pigments before applying them:
“These should be eradicated with gamma rays, common tattoo inks, Indian or vegetable inks are not suitable. The pigments used around the eyes are an ophthalmologically proven mixture of iron oxide suspended in glycerin and alcohol.
While dermatologists report allergic actions to the pigment of the eyes, lip lining requires an antiallergic test (since the ingredients used to achieve red tones are generally synthetic) ”.
Practitioners and disseminators of the cosmetic tattoo process agree in recommending color sensitivity tests, not only because the pigments should not damage the skin, but also because they should match the color of the skin and the pigment tones can vary with the step of the days. In general, the recommendations given by those in this regard, refer to the need for the client to be very clear about what they want to obtain, since from this the practitioner will use their own experience and knowledge to determine the tones and type of pigments that can be used in each skin type and the reactions that can be expected in each case, since the final tone does not set until after a month of application and the last result must be calculated by the practitioner.
The procedures to prevent and reduce pain have now been simplified and tattoo artists or eyeliners do not have to resort to general anesthesia, but to easy-to-apply products based on xylocaine and frozen masks and masks.
The practitioners did not have professional recognition until 1970, when female tattoo artists, especially those of Asian origin, began to practice it on the eyebrows, eyelids and lips. From this field came the first practitioners, in the United States at least. Then other practitioners emerged from the field of cosmetics, such as makeup artists and cosmetologists, and then others from the medical field, such as dermatologists, plastic surgeons and eye doctors.
The Cosmetic Tattoo Industry
The cosmetic makeup industry has a success that surpasses many other apparel-related industries and is today a booming and highly competitive industry. The production, distribution and consumption capacity of this industry has not been reached at present by the cosmetic tattoo industry, not even in the United States of America where since 1980 it has proliferated widely.
The cosmetic tattoo industry in Mexico has grown and strengthened in terms of distribution and consumption, but not in terms of production, which is practically reduced to the artisanal manufacture of some instruments and pigments. A good number of practitioners import instruments and products on their own and do not turn to authorized dealers, so they are not yet strong chains, but they have increased their sales as many other practitioners turn to them. Regarding consumption, there are various indications that allow us to ensure that this is increasing and that those who apply makeup but want to simplify the process, will increasingly resort to cosmetic eye, eyebrow and mouth tattoos:
– The cosmetic industry continues to favor and maintain as essential steps in the makeup process the eyelid, eyebrow and lip liner, which are present in all makeup styles and are used by women of all ages and of all classes social.
– The written press regularly includes articles, interviews and reports that give an account of users and practitioners, both in specialized magazines on beauty and health, and in newspapers with greater circulation. Although the treatments of the subject vary in each medium and section in which the articles, interviews or reports are inserted. It is important that the cosmetic tattoo phenomenon is taken up, discussed and recognized as a current topic that interests consumers of these communicative products, whether or not they are users of the resource.
– Fairs and exhibitions dedicated to the display, demonstration and sale of cosmetic products and services also have a place for manufacturers and importers of instruments and pigments for cosmetic tattoos. Alongside them, some practitioners from the field of cosmetics and cosmetic tattoo, take advantage of these spaces to disseminate the practice and attract customers.
– Apart from this information, we have detected signs that point to the interest that the cosmetic industry has regarding the appropriation of the techniques used by cosmetic tattooing. There are already decals that are applied on the eyelids and eyebrows to simulate the outlines. They last one to two weeks, but they are sold in packs of five applications. Longer lasting applications and even ‘self-applying tattoo’ ‘kits’ are already being developed to replace the permanent eyeliner procedure. The cosmetic lip liner and coloring industry offers indelible lipsticks and liners, brushes and fillers of all thicknesses and consistencies. You will probably get a secondary permanent lip liner that achieves the same lasting effect.